Geography Definition And Introduction

geograpjy meaning and definition
Written by Waseem Raza


Upon hearing the word ‘geography’ most people immediately think of maps which detail physical landmasses and oceans on the Earth’s surface. While geography does include the production of maps (cartography), it is also the study of much more than just physical or even cultural features on a map. Geographers study the space and the temporal distribution of phenomena, processes, and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment. The study of geography as a science of the Earth began from very early times.


However, its scope remained limited, as its study was confined only to the environmental conditions in which the ancient lived; with the passage of time man also began to study the effects of environment on living things. The modern geographers tried their best to make the subject more interesting and useful. They tried to study geographical facts on scientific basis. Thus, the modern Geography included the activities of man on the Earth as an essential part of the study of Geography.

The history of geography includes many histories of Geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups. In more recent developments, geography has become a distinct academic discipline. The history of geography was influenced by many theories, arising mainly from economics and geography. It is a subject which employs a geographical approach to provide insights and understanding of the economy.

However, as Commercial activities are increasing so geography becomes more important than ever. Geographers illuminated many aspects used today in the field; maps created by different European powers described the resources likely to be found in American, African, and Asian territories. Contemporary economic geographers tend to specialize in areas such as place theory and spatial study with the help of geographic information systems, (GIS), market research Geography, transportation, real estate price evaluation, regional and global development, planning, Internet geography, innovation, social networks.

geography definition


The word geography is a combination of two words “Geo” and “Graphy”. Geo is a Greek word that means “The Earth” and the word “Graphy” has been derived from the word “Graphen” which means- “Description”. So, geography means the Description of the Earth. Geography is a science that seeks to analyze the physical environment as well as to study human influences and interactions with the environment. Also read scope of economic geography

Definitions Of Geography

“Geography is concerned to provide an accurate, orderly and rational description and interpretation of the variable character of the Earth surface.” (Reference, Perspective on the nature of Geography. R. Mastshorne- p-21)

“Geography as a branch of knowledge has for its object the description of the surface of the Earth as evidence of man’s relationship with the Earth’s surface the home of man.” (International Geographical congress 1908)

“Geography as a whole is regarded as that department of knowledge which studies the varied features of the Earth’s surface as the environment of mankind”. (Dr. Scott, Ritter, Ratzel). Read more

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