Evolution Of Agriculture Sector

evolution of agriculture
Written by Waseem Raza

Evolution of agriculture sector

The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development of new techniques for raising the productivity. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe and included a diverse range of taxa. Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 20,000 BC. From around 9,500 BC, the eight different crops included emmer wheat; einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, bitter vetch, chick peas, and flax were cultivated in the Levant (Middle East).

Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC. In 7000 BC, many agricultural products like Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 5,000 BC. The potato was domesticated in South America between 8,000 and 5,000 BC, along with beans, coca, llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs. Bananas were also cultivated in the same period. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 3,600 BC.

In the Middle Ages, both in the Islamic world and in Europe, agriculture sector transformed with improved techniques and introduced sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees. After 1492, the Columbian exchange brought New World crops such as maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes to Europe, and Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice, and turnips, and livestock including horses, cattle, sheep, and goats to the Americas.

Irrigation, crop rotation, and fertilizers were introduced soon after the Neolithic Revolution and developed much further in the past 200 years, starting with the British Agricultural Revolution. Since 1900, agriculture sector in the developed nations and in the developing world, has seen large rises in production of agricultural output as new innovations has been brought instead of human labour like mechanization, synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding. The Green Revolution was doing series of research and development projects to introduce technology between the 1940s and the late 1970s. This revolution increased agriculture production around the world.

primary activities

Increased supply of grains has led to cheaper livestock as well. Further, in 20th century there was great increase in global yield when high-yield varieties of common staple grains such as rice, wheat, and corn were introduced as a part of the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution exported the technologies (including pesticides and synthetic nitrogen) to the developing countries. The Green Revolution was significantly increased rice yields in Asia. In the past 15 to 20 years the yield increases have not occurred.

In 1901, Dan Albone constructed the first commercially successful gasoline-powered general-purpose tractor. Laters, in 1923, there were replacements of draft animals with machines by introducing International Harvester Farm all tractor. Since that time, self-propelled mechanical harvesters, planters, Tran’s planters and other equipment have been developed for further development of agriculture sector. These inventions allowed the farmers to fulfill all tasks with a speed and on a large scale leading modern farms to output much greater volumes of highquality produce per land unit.

Introduction To Agriculture Sector

Pakistan has rich and vast natural resources that cover different climatic regions. Pakistan has potential for producing all types of food commodities. For economic development and growth agriculture sector play an important role. Agriculture sector is providing food to the consumers and fibers and other raw material to and it is also a source of foreign exchange earnings. Agriculture constitutes the largest sector of our economy. It contributes 24 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). To make agriculture more effective in supporting higher economic growth and to reduce poverty level in Pakistan, a policy framework is required with favorable socio-political climate and adequate governance.

In order to improve farm level practices and to develop links of farmers with markets and industry, government need to barrow new technologies for the farmer in order to sustainable growth of Agro industry. Agriculture sector has traditionally achieved a satisfactory growth level to ensure food security for growing population. Major problem that the farmer has been faced is that of low returns to farmers because of higher cost of production.

types of resources

The total geographical area of Pakistan is 79.6 million hectares. About 27 percent of this area is currently under cultivation. Of this area, 80 percent is irrigated. The cultivable waste land area offers good possibilities for production of crops. Pakistan is classified as arid to semi-arid because rainfall is not enough to grow agricultural crops, forests and fruit plants and pastures. Agriculture is largely dependent on artificial means of irrigation of the total cultivated area, about 82 percent or around 17.58 million hectares is irrigated, while crop production in the remaining 3.96 million hectares depends mainly upon rainfall. In Pakistan, the best area of agricultural production is Punjab. Its soil is very fertile, and its irrigation system is very fine.

About 50 years ago, agricultural sector was not considered as a commercial sector for economic development in many developing and developed nations. During the last 50 years this sector is realized as a major productive sector of Pakistani economy. 61 percent population is living in more than 50000 villages in Pakistan. The government is currently focusing to develop mechanisms for minimizing cost of production to increase farmer’s interest in agriculture and livestock. As a policy, the government provides infrastructure support to agro-processors in order to provide job opportunities for growing young population. During 2016-17 performance of the agriculture sector remained up to the mark and achieved growth of 3.46 percent against the target of 3.5 percent. This was possible by better harvesting of major crops trough greater availability of agriculture inputs like water, agriculture credit and intensive fertilizers. Read more

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