The atmospheric conditions at any place for a short time (a day, a week, or even months or so) is known as weather. “The generalized picture of weather is called climate”, thus to have a general picture of the atmospheric conditions of a place, the average conditions of the weather are obtained. Temperature, pressure, wind rainfall, etc., are the composite parts or elements of climate. The elements depend upon a number of factors. Climate differs from place to place and from time to time according to the changing factors. Pakistan enjoys arid and semi-arid conditions with hot summer and cold winter. So while studying the climate of Pakistan it has been seen that a great difference is found in the climatic conditions of various areas of our country. Our country has three main seasons:
- Winter season: (from November to February)
- Summer season: (from March to June)
- Rainy season: (from July to October)
In Pakistan humidity is mostly low and the air is dry for the greater part of the year. Only in coastal area there is enough amount of humidity throughout the year. Pakistan can be divided into the following climatic regions:
1. Sub-tropical continental highland type
This region includes the mountains in the north and west of the Indus plain. In this region winters are cold and lengthy and often the temperature goes below the freezing point; and the higher peaks remain snow-covered throughout the year. But here summer remains short, cool and temperate. This region receives highest rainfall.
2. Sub-tropical continental plateau type
This region includes the north western part of Baluchistan province. Here winters are cold, and in summer temperature goes higher enough and often dust storms prevail. Although it has higher altitude, but due to poor rainfall, these have turned into arid desert. In these areas there is scarcity of rain water, but in some of the places of these areas have the lowest rainfall.
3. Sub-tropical continental low land type:
This region includes the interior areas of Punjab and Sindh province. It has generally arid hot climate. Here summer remains long and hot. But winters are cool and short. It has the hottest places of the country. The rainy season begins in the middle of the summer months. But the western part of this plain is drier than the eastern due to very poor rainfall.
4. Sub-tropical coastal areas type
This region includes the coastal strip around Karachi and the Makran coast in Baluchistan. Here due to the influence of the sea, the temperature remains moderate. But due to the proximity of the sea, a large amount of humidity remains in the atmosphere.
From keeping in view temperature can be divided into the following divisions:
1. The north east and north western mountainous region
North east and north western mountainous areas of our country are higher enough from the sea level. Here due to a higher altitude, the winters are cold and longer, and during winter months temperature often goes down below freezing point, there is enough snow falls, and the higher peaks remain covered with snow. But summers remain cool and temperate.
2. The plain areas of Punjab and Sindh Provinces
The plain areas of Punjab and Sindh are situated in the south of the mountainous region. Thus due to low altitude and being far away from the ocean, these areas have a typically continental type of climate. The temperature reaches the maximum during summer months and the summer is hot and lengthy. So, after dry hot weather, thunderstorms or dust storms appear; the thunderstorms bring heavy rainfall and light rainfall is often followed by the dust storms. Thus, due to rainfall a slight decrease in temperature occurs which gives temporary relief.
3. Southern coastal areas
These areas are situated in the south of the lower Indus plain, here due to nearness of sea; the temperature does not reach up to extreme, the atmospheric conditions remain humid, and the heat in the summer months is oppressive.
4. Baluchistan plateau
Here the summer temperature is somewhat higher and winter temperature is also low. As these areas are also far away from sea, so due to high altitude temperature in winter often remains below freezing point. Rainfall being low, these areas are dry. Read more
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