Agriculture Problems In Pakistan

agriculture problems in pakistan
Written by Waseem Raza

Agriculture Problems In Pakistan

Agriculture is the support of Pakistan’s economy. It thus plays central role in national development, food security and poverty reduction. The rapid growth of Pakistan’s urban areas indicates that demand for high-value perishable products such as fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat is rising. Management and control of research resources and information throughout the agricultural research system is weak. It is an activity in which nature and man are involved. The role of man is to sow the seed and nature germinates that seed. In the same way man and nature can affect the agricultural produce. Many other factors can also affect the agriculture which is:

Natural Factors

Agricultural activities are not uniform due to the natural factors. Due to these factors agricultural output can be affected. Natural factors are climate, soil and topography.


The most important factor that controls agriculture is climate. Different types of agricultural output are depending on the climatic condition of a region. Areas where there is a deficiency of heat are also deficient in agricultural produce. Temperature is an element that has significant impact on agricultural output. Its can determine the growth of natural vegetation. Every crop required a certain temperature for its growth and development. For example, if temperature exceeds a crop’s optimal level, if sufficient water and nutrients are not available, yield increases may be reduced or reversed It the same time rainfall also affects crop productivity.


The second factor that affects agriculture is soil, because there is great difference of various agricultural crops in the world due to change in soil. A rich soil for plantation of different crops is the chief requirement of successful agriculture. Soils that are poor in texture have low productivity. It produces agriculture output of poor quality and variety.


Topography also effects agriculture as it relates to soil erosion and poor transportation facilities. Agricultural crops are mainly depending on the topography of land. On hilly and rough areas, the use of agricultural machinery is not possible. In hilly areas, the barren land can be changed into plain land for cultivation of different crops by using new techniques and methods.

Economic Factor

Agricultural activities are affected by Economic factors which are as follows.

Transportation Facilities

Road transport plays an important role in agricultural development. Transport is a crucial that can improve agricultural productivity. It enhances quality of life of the people, creates market for agricultural produce and can facilitate interaction among geographical and economic regions. Through transport agricultural output can be sent to the warehouses and markets so its role in agriculture is very significant.

world trade routes


Markets are the context, both physical and conceptual, where exchange takes place. Market will generally affect the competitive power of the agricultural output. Places near large centers of population generally develop market. Perishable goods can be transported to the market for short distances without much damage. Large bulk of agriculture production can be transported to the markets, where there is large number of buyer.


Agriculture sector requires skilled labour that is efficient for productive activities. A skilled labour can easily judge the suitable season and soil for the cultivation of different crops. Agricultural labour can determines the timely sowing, harvesting and other practices that ensure favorable return. So without labour the agriculture growth cannot be possible.


Capital is main factor that is essential in agriculture. The modern farming technique has become capital-intensive. The farmer has to invest large amount of capital in agriculture, so he can buy agriculture machinery, fertilizers and chemicals which is not possible without money.

Social Factors

Social factors affect farming in a number of ways. The type of farming practiced is always related to regional social structure. Social factors can also affect the type of crops that are grown. Social factors include:

  • Inheritance of land: In many parts of the world the land of father is divided between his children. This will lead to the breaking of small farms into smaller units which affect the productivity.
  • Lack of agricultural education: Uneducated farmers affect the agricultural output due to unawareness about newly scientific methods and use of modern technology.
  • Size of holdings: size of holdings is the factors that affect the farming system. Small size of holdings affects the efficiency of production and on a large scale, it is impossible for small size of holding to use machinery.
  • Political Factors: Political factors also play a vital role in agricultural development. The political system, i.e., capitalistic, communist or socialistic system determines the pattern of agriculture.
  • Encouragement from government: The government policies regarding land, irrigation, marketing and trade, etc., have a direct impact on agriculture. Government facilities can help the farmer for the improvement of agriculture production.
  • Security of farmer’s right: Government should protect the rights of farmers under law, so that they may work with more interest. Read more

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